A two-cycle engine demonstrates power output up to 500 HP on a dynamometer; and a one-cycle engine with Plexiglas cylinder shows ignition of noble gas in vacuum process, which current physics says is impossible.
Method of utilizing potential energy of atoms and various forms of radiation (electrons, photons, positrons, gamma, beta and alpha radiations, etc.) in a controlled power generating system; effective mixtures of chemical elements adapted for use in the method; the preparation of charges of ingredients for use in virtually gas-tight power generating devices; the activation and control of such charges and devices; structural requirements of power generating devices utilizing the methods and compositions.
Ion-thruster engines do what conventional spacecraft engines do: they accelerate propellant (in this case, a gas) to very high speeds and channel it out a nozzle. In response, the engine, and thus the rest of the spacecraft, recoils in the opposite direction. You can do this science experiment yourself: While you're standing on a skateboard, let loose a C[O.sub.2] fire extinguisher (purchased, of course, for this purpose). The gas will go one way; you and the skateboard will go the other way. This equivalence of action and reaction is a law of the universe, first described by Isaac Newton in the late seventeenth century.
But ion thrusters and ordinary rocket engines part ways in their choice of propellant and their source of the energy that accelerates it. Deep Space 1 used electrically charged (ionized) xenon gas as its propellant, rather than the liquid hydrogen-oxygen combo burned in the space shuttle's main engines. Ionized gas is easier to manage than explosively flammable chemicals. Plus, xenon happens to be a noble gas, which means it won't corrode or otherwise interact chemically with anything. For 16,000 hours, using less than four ounces of propellant a day, Deep Space 1's foot-wide, drum-shaped engine accelerated xenon ions across an electric field to speeds of twenty-five miles per second and spewed them from its nozzle. As anticipated, the recoil per pound of fuel was ten times greater than that of conventional rocket engines.
In space, as on Earth, there is no such thing as a free lunch--not to mention a free launch. Something had to power those ion thrusters on Deep Space 1. Some investment of energy had to first ionize the xenon atoms and then accelerate them. That energy came from electricity, courtesy of the Sun.
In his U.S. Patent #4,428,193. Papp claimed that he used an inert gas mixture, which after extensive treatment could become highly reactive when triggered in an enclosed chamber—going from a "ground state" to an "ionized/plasma state" and back to the ground state. This cycling from the ground to the excited and back to the ground state could be repeated at frequencies of more than 60 cycles/second. The reactivegas mixture is ideal to operate an IPECE without needing an exhaust and an injection of a new gas mixture/cycle as required for any conventional ICE (internal combustion engine).