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Atomic Hydrogen Blowtorch

Invented by Langmuir in 1926 , this device produces a temperature of 3700 degrees centigrade. Tungsten can be melted, diamond vapourised.

A jet of hydrogen gas is dissociated as it passes through an electric arc. H2 > H + H - 422 kJ. An endothermic reaction, with the intensely hot plasma core of the arc providing the dissociation energy. The atomic hydrogen produced soon recombines; and this recombination is the source of such high temperatures (easily outperforming oxy-hydrogen: 2800oC and oxy-acetylene: 3315oC).

The hydrogen can be thought of as simply a transport mechanism to extract energy from the arc plasma and transfer it to a work surface. It produces a true flame, as the heat is liberated by a chemical reaction. H + H > H2 + 422kJ. The molecular hydrogen burns off in the atmosphere, contributing little to the heat output.

From the May 1, 1926 issue of The Science News-Letter -

"...developed by Dr. Irving Langmuir, assistant director of the Schenectady laboratory, and makes use of what he calls flames of atomic hydrogen.... Electric currents of 20 amperes and at voltages ranging from 300 to 800"

From A Text Book of Inorganic Chemistry, Partington 1946 -

"Atomic hydrogen. - Langmuir (1912) has shown that hydrogen in contact with a tungsten wire heated by an electric current at low pressure, is dissociated into atoms:
H2 <=> 2H. This splitting of the hydrogen molecule is attended by the absorption of a large amount of energy, about 100kcal per gram molecule. The atomic hydrogen so formed is chemically very active. Langmuir also showed that atomic hydrogen is formed when an electric arc between tungsten electrodes is allowed to burn in hydrogen at atmospheric pressure. The atomic hydrogen was blown out of the arc by a jet of molecular hydrogen directed across the arc, and formed an intensely hot flame, which is capable of melting tungsten (m.p. 3400oC). This flame obtains its heat not from combustion but from the recombination of hydrogen atoms into H2. It is suitable for melting and welding many metals. Iron can be melted without contamination with carbon, oxygen or nitrogen. Because of the powerful reducing action of the atomic hydrogen, alloys can be melted without fluxes and without surface oxidation. A feature of the flame is the great rapidity with which heat can be delivered to a surface, which is very important in welding operations."

Atomic hydrogen welding
Used extensively before the second world war, particularly in germany. The method was known as Arc-Atom. The welding torch consists of two inclined tungsten electrodes across which an AC arc is struck. Annular nozzles around the electrodes carry hydrogen gas. The gas streams converge forming a fan shaped flame. A transformer with an open circuit voltage of 300V is required to strike and maintain the arc in hydrogen.

Because of the high thermal conductivity of hydrogen, the plasma channel in the arc is constricted, offering very high energy concentration. Arc-Atom welding was of particular use for such jobs as surfacing dies, where the high flame temperature enabled a thin surface layer to be deposited on the thick base metal. Modern sheilding gas methods such as MIG and TIG processes have replaced Arc-Atom, but do not have the extreme temperatures and arc constriction qualities of atomic hydrogen.

Atomic - Hydrogen Welding

"A process in which the welding heat is generated by passing a stream of hydrogen through an electric arc between two inclined electrodes, which are usually of tungsten. The high temperature of the arc dissociates molecules of the gas into atoms, a large quantity of heat being absorbed by the hydrogen during dissociation. When the atoms leave the influence of the arc they recombine, forming molecules of hydrogen and liberating heat previously absorbed. The gas then burns in the ordinary way, taking up oxygen from the atmosphere for the purpose.

The average temperature of the flame is approximately 4000 deg. C., which is higher than the maximum temperature of any other flame. The heat is concentrated chiefly at the point of recombination of the atoms, and this recombination is accelerated catalytically by contact with the surface of the metal being welded. Thus an intense flame is obtained at the point of welding. The process is, therefore, used when rapid welding is necessary, as for stainless steels and other special alloys. The hydrogen envelope prevents oxidation both of the metal and the tungsten electrodes, and it also reduces the risk of nitrogen pick-up. The non-oxidizing characteristic is perhaps the most important in practice.

As a rule, the cost of welding by this process is slightly higher than with other processes, but it is sometimes the only practicable method by which a satisfactory weld can be made. An automatic atomic - hydrogen welding process has also been developed in which, instead of using hydrogen from high-pressure cylinders, the hydrogen is obtained by cracking anhydrous ammonia."

Odhams Practical & Technical Encyclopaedia 1947

hydrogen, energy