An antigravity propulsion mechanism - Christopher G. Provatidis and Vasileios Th. Tsiriggakis
It is well known that, non-rocket spacelaunch is the idea of reaching outer space specifically from the Earth's surface predominately without the use of conventional chemical rockets, which today is the only method in use.
Transportation to orbit is one factor in the expense of space endeavors; if it can be made more efficient the total cost of space flight can be reduced. Present-day launch costs are very high — $10,000 to $25,000 per kilogram from Earth to low Earth orbit, though some countries subsidize launches to prices nearer $4,000. To settle space, e.g. space exploration and space colonization, much cheaper launch methods are required, as well as a way to avoid serious damage to the atmosphere from the thousands, perhaps millions, of launches required. Another benefit may be increased safety and reliability of launches, which, in addition to lower cost, would avail for space disposal of radioactive waste. Once having overcome the Earth gravity barrier, vehicles may instead use other, non-rocket-based methods of propulsion, e.g. ion thrusters, which have a higher propellant efficiency (specific impulse) and potential maximum velocity than conventional rockets, but are not suitable for spacelaunch.1
Today, non-rocket methods such as electrogravitics as well as ion and Hall thrusters have been documented in textbooks,2-5 while other methods based on rotating superconductive materials have appeared in the research terrain.6
On the other hand, at least since 1950s the idea of mechanical antigravity has been proposed,7-9 among others. Extensive research on a great amount of alternative setups has led to the conclusion that this type of propulsion is rather impossible to achieve.11 Despite the fact that a concentrated mass moving along a circumference does not produce any impulse,12 the attempts aiming at controlling the motion of rotating masses by varying the upper and lower radii of the orbit has not stopped.15 In the particular case of a Dean space drive, it has been recently shown that the device practically works like a catapult while a variable angular velocity of the rods can only control the smoothness of the object velocity to which the drive is attached.12 Between several other remarkable attempts in mechanical antigravity, one could mention the work of the late professor Eric Laithwaite16 that is based on gyroscopes.
It is remarkable that gyroscopes constitute an important source of inspiration. Between their properties, one could mention the slight weight loss that has been claimed to have occurred, although this finding has become a matter of controversy between Japanese17,18 and French19 researchers. The most recent paper on this topic is probably due to the Englishman Wayte,20 who showed that about 8% of the weight is reduced. It is quite interesting that Wayte explained his measurements in terms of the Principle of Equivalence.21
Somehow related to the above findings, relativistic considerations show that in a thin hollow sphere or in a uniform ring that is spinning around its vertical axis, antigravity forces are induced along the said axis, a matter against Newton’s classical theory.22-25 Consequently, a similar antigravity behavior should be anticipated in case of a concentrated rotating mass. A state-of-the-art report was published by Robertson et al.26
As it will be explained below, in this paper the use of figure-eight-shaped orbits will be proposed. It is perhaps worth-mentioning that, in 1982 the first author, head of the research and inventor, together with Mr. Theodore Tsiriggakis, perceived and validated a new kinematical theory in power/motion transmission - that is based on the utilization of figure-eight shaped curves (symbol of infinity) - on which masses are moved. In 1983, the team participated in the international exhibition of Brussels and were awarded the three top prizes. A first application concerned the gearless differentials in which the curves were not intersected.27 After the awards, with the first author leading the project, it was decided that, a more intensive gravity research would be conducted in masses being moved on a figure-eight-shaped track with the use of special sensors in a hemisphere-shaped room. As a result of 26 years of intensive research and continuous manufacturing of samples, a mechanism has been invented. It is an elegant mechanism that carries two electric motors as shown in Fig. 1; previously, a much simpler device using the same principle in the form of a propeller for water applications had been manufactured. When the rotations of the motors are appropriately combined, then the centrifugal forces are coordinated towards a desired direction, so as antigravity propulsion is achieved in the object on which the mechanism is applied. It is noted that the device utilizes observations on antigravitational phenomena occurring within Nature (i.e the figure-eight-shaped motion of the tips of the wings of the hummingbird).
In the abovementioned framework, this paper proposes a breakthrough innovation for the achievement of an antigravity field as well as for propulsion, the latter if wished. The proposed method belongs to the category of mechanical antigravity, as inertial propulsive forces are developed, either as a pure antigravity system or as a hybrid antigravity system in conjunction with low power rockets or other means.An antigravity propulsion mechanism