20 Year History of Lattice Enabled Nuclear Reactions
At the University of Missouri, on May 29, 2009, scientists from the US Navy's Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR) lectured on twenty years of verified research involving anomalous heat and mini-explosions on deuterated metals, reported by various governmental and international research laboratories. They conclude that these energetic observations are of nuclear origin and sow the seeds of a true green energy source.
The Slides: http://bisbee.net/wp/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/SPAWAR-MAY-9-2009.pdf (redirect)
The lecture summary:
Twenty-Year History of Lattice-Enabled Nuclear Reactions Using Pd/D Co-deposition
F.E. Gordon, S. Szpak, P.A. Mosier-Boss, Melvin Miles, and L.P.G. Forsley
In the Pd/D co-deposition process, working and counter electrodes are immersed in a solution of palladium chloride and lithium chloride in deuterated water. Palladium is then electrochemically reduced onto the surface of the working electrode in the presence of evolving deuterium gas. Electrodes prepared by Pd/D co-deposition exhibit highly expanded surfaces consisting of small spherical nodules. Because of this high surface area and electroplating in the presence of deuterium gas, the incubation time to achieve high D/Pd loadings necessary to initiate LENR is orders of magnitude less than required for bulk electrodes. Using a Dewar-type electrochemical cell/calorimeter, it was shown that the rates of excess enthalpy generation using electrodes prepared by the Pd/D co-deposition technique were higher than that obtained when Pd bulk electrodes were used.1 Positive feedback and heat-after-death effects were also observed with the Pd/D co-deposited electrodes. Infrared imaging of electrodes prepared by Pd/D co-deposition show that the working electrode is hotter than the solution indicating that the heat source is the Pd/D co-deposited electrode and not Joule heating.2 Infrared images also show that the heat generation is not continuous, but occurs in discrete spots on the electrode. The 'hot spots' observed in the infrared imaging experiments suggest that 'mini-explosions' were occurring, These 'mini-explosions' were confirmed by conducting the Pd/D co-deposition directly on a piezoelectric transducer. To verify that the heat produced by Pd/D co-deposition was nuclear in origin, experiments were conducted to detect the nuclear ash. Using the Pd/D co-deposition, the following nuclear emanations have been detected: X-ray emission,3 tritium production,4 transmutation,5 and particle emission.6,7
1. S. Szpak, P.A. Mosier-Boss, M.H. Miles, and M. Fleischmann, 'Thermal Behavior of Polarized Pd/D Electrodes Prepared by Co-Deposition', Thermochim. Acta, Vol. 410, pp. 101-107 (2004).
2. P.A. Mosier-Boss and S. Szpak, 'The Pd/nH System: Transport Processes and Development of Thermal Instabilities', Il Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 112A, pp. 577-585 (1999).
3. S. Szpak, P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith, 'On the Behavior of the Cathodically Polarized Pd/D System: Search for Emanating Radiation', Phys. Letts. A, Vol. 210, pp. 382-390 (1996).
4. S. Szpak, P.A. Mosier-Boss, R.D. Boss, and J.J. Smith, 'On the Behavior of the Pd/D System: Evidence for Tritium Production', Fusion Technology, Vol. 33, pp. 38-51 (1998).
5. S. Szpak, P.A. Mosier-Boss, C. Young, and F.E. Gordon, 'Evidence of Nuclear Reactions in the Pd Lattice', Naturwissenschaften, Vol. 92, pp. 394-397 (2005).
6. P.A. Mosier-Boss, S. Szpak, F.E. Gordon, and L.P.G. Forsley, 'Use of CR-39 in Pd/D Co-Deposition Experiments', Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 40, pp 293-303 (2007).
7. P.A. Mosier-Boss, S. Szpak, F.E. Gordon, and L.P.G. Forsley, 'Triple Tracks in CR-39 as the Result of Pd/D Co-deposition: Evidence of Energetic Neutrons', Naturwissenschaften. Vol. 96, pp. 135-142 (2009).
Mr. Lawrence Forsley, President, JWK International Corporation
Pamela A. Mosier-Boss, Ph.D., Advanced Systems and Applied Sciences Division of US Navy SSC-Pacific
Frank E. Gordon, Ph.D., Former Head, Research and Applied Sciences Department, US Navy SSC-Pacific
BRINK - Discovery Science Channel on "Cold Fusion"
Dwight Williams, Senior Science Adviser, DOE
> Twenty-Year History of Lattice-Enabled Nuclear Reactions (LENR) - Hiding in Plain Sight